One may dispute these figures and the assumptions underlying them, but for our purposes what is important is the illustration of how much variation there is among countries in the extent to which the population of the rural "reservoir" is drawn upon. It is noteworthy that the two most urbanized and advanced countries, Chile and Argentina, have one fourth or more of their total 1950 base rural population removed to urban areas within the decade, whereas Guatemala, the most backward of the seven countries, has by far the lowest-a suspiciously low—figure. As we shall soon see, migration is age-concentrated, so the actual loss in the young adult years is considerably greater than the figures indicate. However, the concept of a migratory "reservoir" is important for any consideration of migrant selectivity. Independent of the characteristics of the migrants, such as education or occupation, it is apparent that the situation in countries such as Chile, in which up to one half of the young adult population leave, does not permit the degree of selectivity that could, though not necessarily would, characterize a country where only 10 percent of the same age group migrated to cities. This important point will be taken up again in another context.
Out-migration from rural areas assumes various forms. Caldwell, in his rural survey, has provided us with some of the best data showing both the amount and form of rural out-migration. In Table 2 the migratory status of
TABLE 2 Migration Classification of Ghana Rural Respondents by Age, 1693
Classification3 0-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-44 45-64 65+ Ages
Never migrated 85 83 78 63 55 57 64 73 69
Seasonal migrant 2 3 6 9 8 6 4 2 5
Permanent returnee 3 3 3 6 12 13 17 19 9
Long-term absentee 7 7 12 20 20 21 13 4 14
Other; no entry 3 4 1 2 5 3 2 2 3
Totalb 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Never migrated-includes those currently "visiting" town, a few of whom may have been previous migrants.
Seasonal migrant-includes those currently in the town and those in the village who intend to migrate again.
Permanent returnee—those who have been cither seasonal or long-term migrants but who do not intend to migrate again.
Long-term absentee-includes the long-term absentees resident in the town whether in the town or temporarily visiting the village at the time of the survey.
"Number sampled = 6,964.
Source: (12; Appendix 2} p. 240).0 rural population of the country. The countries and their percentages are given below: